I collect used stamps world wide: any used stamp of this list is very much apreciated.
|1886, 1 January: Burma is proclaimed a British colony. February: Burma is proclaimed a province of British India.|
Starting in 1854, Burma used the stamps of British India without any form of overprinting. The stamps can only be identified when used by the postmarks which from 1856 were specially made for Burmese post offices.
The first post office opened in 1827 in Akyab. Ten years later also in Kyouk Phyoo, Ramree, Sandway and Moulmein. In 1852 a postmaster was apointed in Rangoon and opstal service extended to Pegu province. At that thime 22 post offices existed with . In 1860 a post office opened on Andaman Islands in Port Blair. In 1862 in Pegu province. From 1869 to 1885 agencies were opened in Mandalay and Bhamo. In 1887 posts were used by boat or rail. Airpost existed from 1933 between England, Akyab and Rangoon.
|On 1 April 1937, Burma became a separately administered colony of Great Britain, and Ba Maw became the first Prime Minister and Premier of Burma. Ba Maw was an outspoken advocate for Burmese self-rule, and he opposed the participation of Great Britain, and by extension Burma, in World War II. He resigned from the Legislative Assembly and was arrested for sedition. In 1940, before Japan formally entered the war, Aung San formed the Burma Independence Army in Japan.|
1 Rupie = 16 Annas. 1 Anna = 12 Pies.
|The Empire of Japan invaded Burma in 1942; this continued through 1943 when the State of Burma was proclaimed in Rangoon. Japan never succeeded in fully conquering all of the colony, however, and insurgent activity was pervasive, though not as much of an issue as it was in other former colonies. By 1945, British-led troops, mainly from the British Indian Army, had regained control over most of the colony.|
British troops in Burma during WWII (1941-45) used British India stamps
|The Japanese invaded Burma from the south from April to May 1942. The Japanese had assisted formation of the Burma Independence Army, and trained the Thirty Comrades, who were the founders of the modern Armed Forces (Tatmadaw). The Burmese hoped to gain support of the Japanese in expelling the British, so that Burma could become independent. In 1943 Japan nominally declared the colony independent as the State of Burma on 1 August 1943.|
Monetary system: from October 1942: 1 Rupie = 100 Cent
In May 1942, during the invasion and before the establishment of the Japanese military administration, the British Burma stamps were overprinted with a peacock (the Burmese national bird) in all kinds of types, and were put on sale by the "Public Order Committee" under the "Burma Independent Army" in Southern Burma. Be carefull when paying too much for these creations, as probably most surcharges are fakes. Also letters with THA HAN PHAUNG are fakes.
Under the instruction of Shizuo Yano, chief of the Committee for re-establishment of Burmese Postal Service, the Yano seal stamps were hastily printed in time for the opening on 1 June 1942. Soon afterward the Farmer 1 anna was prepared: printing started on 11 June (and continued until 25 June), and stamps were sold from 15 June.
Various Japanese stamps were also overprinted for use in Burma from 22 September.
The postage for 1st class letter changed from 1 anna to 5 cents on 15 October 1942, so the unsold stamps were overprinted 5C, and the Showa stamps were re-overprinted in cents.
Under the Japanese Occupation in South-East Asia the Japanese stamps were also valid without overpint.
On 15 February 1943 Burmese National Emblem stamps were issued big enough to be affixed above the embossed portrait of George VI.
|On 1 August 1943 Japan nominally declared the colony independent as the State of Burma. Under a hastily drawn up constitution which incorporated both democratic and totalitarian elements, Burma was to be "a fully independent and sovereign nation" ruled over by the Naingandaw Adipadi, or Head of State. The man chosen for this position was the Burmese nationalist Ba Maw. When informed of the impending transfer of eastern Shan State to Thailand, Ba Maw was naturally less than happy. At a meeting with Tojo, the Japanese strongman, in Singapore, Ba Maw commented that "Neither the Burmese nor the Shans will be completely happy about the dismemberment of the Shan territory and its people". Tojo was apologetic, but explained that Japan had promised eastern Shan State to Thailand as the price for becoming an ally. "But we have come in with you too", said Ba Maw, "and we also have our claims". However, many Burmese began to believe the Japanese had no intention of giving them real independence. Under Japanese occupation, 170,000 to 250,000 civilians died.|
|Saharat Thai Doem (Thai: "Unified former Thai Territories") was an administrative division of Thailand.|
On December 8, 1941, Japanese troops invaded Thailand by land, from Cambodia, by air at Don Muang airfield, and by sea in amphibious landings on the coast. Despite fierce fighting at points in the south, organised resistance lasted only a few hours. Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram (contemporarily known as Phibun, Thai military officer and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Thailand and dictator from 1938 to 1944) ordered a cease-fire, his government having agreed that to fight the Japanese would be suicidal. Unknown to most, Phibun was determined to seek an alliance with Japan. On December 14 he signed a secret agreement with the Japanese committing Thai troops to participate in the invasion of British Burma, One week later, on 21 December 1941, Phibun signed a formal treaty of alliance with Japan in front of the Emerald Buddha at Wat Phra Kaeo, considered the most sacred object in all Thailand.
Phibun's reward for entering into this alliance was a secret Japanese guarantee to return to Thailand the Malayan provinces ceded to the British in 1909, as well as the so-called "lost territories" of Burma's Eastern Shan State. On 25 January 1942, Phibun declared war on Britain and the United States. Phibun's action was opposed by most Thais as well as by Thailand's ambassador to Washington, Seni Pramoj, who simply refused to deliver the declaration of war to the US Secretary of State.
Thai forces, allied with the Japanese, occupied Kengtung and surrounding areas in 1942, annexing the territory to the Thai state. It encompassed the eastern parts of the Shan States of British Burma annexed by the Thai government on 18 August 1943. With this annexation, Thailand expanded northwards to the 22nd parallel north and gained a border with China. Chiang Tung (Kengtung) was the administrative headquarters of the province. A rudimentary administration was set up early in the invasion with Kengtung as the centre. Made up mostly of small rural communities, during the occupation the Thai territory in Shan State remained a largely forgotten place.
New stamps for this "Shan State" were issued on 1 October 1943 staragegically to show Shan State's separation from Burma.Strange piece of forgotten history this, don't you agree ?. It is in my humble opinion also forgotten in the major stamp catalogues, as these stamps are simply classified under Japanese occupation of Burma with a little notice "issues for Shan"..
|After the Thai Phibun government fell in August 1944, the post-Phibun Thai authorities discreetly contacted the Allies and let it be known that they were prepared to turn against their former Japanese partners whenever the Allies gave the word. They also made it quite clear to the British that they renounced all claim to Shan State and northern Malaya, and that they would return these territories to Britain immediately on the cessation of hostilities. Despite these gestures, the British did not want to treat the Thais leniently after they helped Japan to invade Burma and Malaya. American pressure prevented a vengeful Churchill from implementing punitive measures against the Thais. At the end of the War British troops recaptured Burma by 15 August 1945.|
The unused stamps for "Shan State" (issued the previous year on 1 October 1943) were overprinted in November 1944 "Bama naing ngan daw", Burma State in Burmese, the name of the Japanese puppet state.
|Aung San, father of future opposition leader and State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi, and other nationalist leaders formed the Anti-Fascist Organisation in August 1944, which asked the United Kingdom to form a coalition with the other Allies against the Japanese. By 1945, British-led troops, mainly from the British Indian Army, had regained control over most of the colony. By April 1945, the Allies had driven out the Japanese. Subsequently, negotiations began between the Burmese and the British for independence. The surrender of the Japanese brought a military administration to Burma. The British administration sought to try Aung San and other members of the British Indian Army for treason and collaboration with the Japanese. Lord Mountbatten realised that a trial was an impossibility considering Aung San's popular appeal. After the war ended, the British Governor, Colonel Sir Reginald Dorman-Smith, returned. The restored government established a political programme that focused on the physical reconstruction of the country and delayed discussion of independence.|
|Dorman-Smith was replaced by Major-General Sir Hubert Rance as the new governor, and the Rangoon police went on strike. The strike, starting in September 1946, then spread from the police to government employees and came close to becoming a general strike. Rance calmed the situation by meeting with Aung San and convincing him to join the Governor's Executive Council along with other members of the AFPFL. The new executive council, which now had increased credibility in the country, began negotiations for Burmese independence, which were concluded successfully in London as the Aung San-Attlee Agreement on 27 January 1947.|
|On 19 July 1947, U Saw, a conservative pre-war Prime Minister of Burma, engineered the assassination of Aung San and several members of his cabinet including his eldest brother Ba Win, the father of today's National League for Democracy exile-government leader Dr Sein Win, while meeting in the Secretariat. Since then 19 July has been commemorated since as Martyrs' Day in Burma. Thakin Nu, the Socialist leader, was now asked to form a new cabinet, and he presided over Burmese independence instituted under the Burma Independence Act 1947 on 4 January 1948. Burma chose to become a fully independent republic, and not a British Dominion upon independence. This was in contrast to the independence of India and Pakistan which both resulted in the attainment of dominion status. This may have been on account of anti-British popular sentiment being strong in Burma at the time.|
Remote areas of northern Burma were for many years controlled by an army of Kuomintang (KMT) forces after the Communist victory in China in 1949.
|Burma accepted foreign assistance in rebuilding the country in these early years, but continued American support for the Chinese Nationalist military presence in Burma finally resulted in the country rejecting most foreign aid, refusing to join the Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO) and supporting the Bandung Conference of 1955. Burma generally strove to be impartial in world affairs and was one of the first countries in the world to recognise Israel and the People's Republic of China.|
|By 1958, the country was largely beginning to recover economically, but was beginning to fall apart politically due to a split in the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL) into two factions, one led by Thakins Nu and Tin, the other by Ba Swe and Kyaw Nyein. This was despite the unexpected success of U Nu's 'Arms for Democracy' offer taken up by U Seinda in the Arakan, the Pa'O, some Mon and Shan groups, but more significantly by the PVO surrendering their arms. The situation became very unstable in parliament, with U Nu surviving a no-confidence vote only with the support of the opposition National United Front (NUF), believed to have 'cryptocommunists' amongst them.|
|The Burmese Way to Socialism (also known as the Burmese Road to Socialism) was the ideology of the military dictatorship in Burma under the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP) from 1962 to 1988. Ne Win and the Burmese military launched the March 1962 coup d'état to overthrow Prime Minister U Nu and the democratic Union Parliament due to economic, religious and political crises, particularly the issue of federalism and secession rights of the States of Burma. The Union Revolutionary Council established Burma as a one-party socialist state under the BSPP and adopted the Burmese Way to Socialism in April 1962 as a blueprint for economic development, decreasing foreign influence in Burma to zero percent and increasing the role of the military.|
|Ne Win ruled Burma as a de facto dictator as Chairman of the BSPP and other top offices including Prime Minister and President. Burma was renamed the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma and the Union Revolutionary Council was replaced with the People's Assembly in 1974. The Burmese Way to Socialism was characterized by isolationism, totalitarianism, superstition, xenophobia, sinophobia, and the rejection of Cold War politics. The Burmese Way to Socialism has largely been described by scholars as an "abject failure", and as turning one of the most prosperous countries in Asia into one of the world's poorest. Burma experienced greatly increased poverty, inequality, corruption and international isolation, and has been described as "disastrous".|
|By 1975 there were 1094 postoffices.|
|The State Peace and Development Council, abbreviated SPDC was the official name of the military government of Burma, which seized power under the rule of Saw Maung in 1988. On 30 March 2011, Senior General and Council Chairman Than Shwe signed a decree that officially dissolved the Council. From 1988 to 1997, the SPDC was known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council (abbreviated SLORC), which had replaced the Burma Socialist Programme Party. In 1997, SLORC was abolished and reconstituted as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The powerful regional military commanders, who were members of SLORC, were promoted to new positions and transferred to the capital of Rangoon (now Yangon). The new regional military commanders were not included in the membership of the SPDC.|
|Stamps bear the new name Union of Myanmar|
|The 2011–2015 Myanmar political reforms were a series of political, economic and administrative reforms in Myanmar undertaken by the military-backed government. These reforms include the release of pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest and subsequent dialogues with her, establishment of the National Human Rights Commission, general amnesties of more than 200 political prisoners, institution of new labour laws that allow labour unions and strikes, relaxation of press censorship, and regulations of currency practices. As a consequence of the reforms, ASEAN has approved Myanmar's bid for the chairmanship in 2014. United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Myanmar on 1 December 2011, to encourage further progress; it was the first visit by a Secretary of State in more than fifty years. United States President Barack Obama visited one year later, becoming the first US president to visit the country.|